Plow vs. Tiller: Choosing the Right Tool for Efficient Soil Cultivation

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When it comes to cultivating the land for agriculture or gardening, the choice between a plow and a tiller plays a pivotal role in determining the success of your efforts. Each piece of equipment serves a unique purpose, impacting factors such as soil structure, crop growth, and overall efficiency. In this comprehensive guide, we delve into the nuances of the age-old debate: Plow vs. Tiller. Whether you’re a seasoned farmer or a novice gardener, understanding the distinctions between these two implements is crucial for making informed decisions that optimize your land use.

This article explores the key characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of both plows and tillers, offering valuable insights to help you choose the right tool for your specific needs. From the depth of soil disruption to the impact on soil health, we’ll dissect the differences, providing a thorough comparison that empowers you to make choices aligned with your agricultural goals.

Plow vs. Tiller

Plow Overview

plow vs tiller

In the vast landscape of agricultural practices, the plow stands as an indispensable tool, rooted in centuries-old traditions. A plow is essentially a farming implement designed for soil cultivation, breaking up and turning over the earth to prepare it for planting. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the incorporation of nutrients, enhance soil aeration, and create an optimal environment for seed germination. This fundamental role in soil preparation positions the plow as a cornerstone in agricultural history, marking the beginning of the cultivation process.

Types of Plows

  1. Moldboard Plow:
    • Description: The moldboard plow is a traditional and widely used plow with a curved, moldboard-shaped blade. It effectively turns over and buries the soil, bringing nutrient-rich lower layers to the surface.
    • Use Case: Ideal for breaking new ground, burying crop residues, and preparing fields for planting. It helps control weeds by burying them and enhances soil aeration.
  2. Chisel Plow:
    • Description: Chisel plows have long, narrow shanks that penetrate the soil rather than turning it over completely. They are designed to break up hardpan or compacted soil without inverting the soil layers.
    • Use Case: Suitable for conservation tillage and minimizing soil erosion. Chisel plows are effective for managing residue and improving water infiltration.
  3. Disk Plow:
    • Description: Disk plows have sets of concave disks mounted on a common shaft. These disks cut and turn the soil as they rotate, creating a fine seedbed.
    • Use Case: Commonly used in regions with heavy or sticky soils. Disk plows are efficient at breaking clods and mixing crop residues with the soil.
  4. Subsoiler:
    • Description: Subsoilers have a single, deep shank that penetrates the soil below the normal plowing depth. They are designed to break up compacted layers without disturbing the surface soil.
    • Use Case: Ideal for addressing soil compaction issues and improving water drainage. Subsoilers promote deeper root growth and enhance nutrient penetration.
  5. One-Way Plow:
    • Description: One-way plows have a single moldboard and are usually offset to one side. They are designed for plowing in one direction, making them efficient for large, open fields.
    • Use Case: Suitable for quickly covering vast areas. One-way plows are commonly used in row-crop farming where straight furrows are preferred.
  6. Two-Way Plow:
    • Description: Two-way plows have reversible moldboards, allowing them to plow in both directions without turning the plow around. This design increases efficiency and reduces the need for wide turning spaces.
    • Use Case: Suitable for smaller fields or irregularly shaped plots where turning space is limited. Two-way plows provide flexibility in maneuverability.
  7. Offset Plow:
    • Description: Offset plows have the plowing assembly offset to the side of the tractor, allowing for deeper penetration and reduced soil disturbance. They are useful in rocky or uneven terrains.
    • Use Case: Well-suited for areas with obstacles like rocks or tree roots. Offset plows minimize the risk of damaging the plow in challenging conditions.
  8. Rollover Plow:
    • Description: Rollover plows are designed to automatically flip over when they encounter an obstacle, reducing the risk of damage. They typically have a hinge mechanism that allows the plow to roll backward and then return to the normal position.
    • Use Case: Useful in rocky or uneven terrain where obstacles are present. Rollover plows enhance durability and reduce downtime due to collisions.
  9. Share Plow:
    • Description: Share plows have a single blade, or share, that cuts through the soil. They are simpler in design compared to moldboard plows and are often used for lighter tillage.
    • Use Case: Suitable for shallow plowing or for breaking up small areas. Share plows are commonly used in gardening and small-scale agriculture.
  10. Stubble Plow:
    • Description: Stubble plows are designed for use after a crop has been harvested. They efficiently cut through the remnants of the previous crop, incorporating the residue into the soil.
    • Use Case: Ideal for minimal soil disturbance and residue management. Stubble plows help prepare the field for the next planting season while maintaining soil structure.

Advantages of Using a Plow

The utilization of a plow brings forth a multitude of benefits that significantly contribute to successful agricultural endeavors. Firstly, by turning and loosening the soil, plowing promotes better water infiltration and retention, preventing waterlogging and enhancing overall soil structure. Moreover, the burial of crop residues aids in weed suppression and disease control, fostering a healthier environment for crops to thrive. Additionally, the disruption of the soil surface through plowing facilitates improved seedbed preparation, promoting uniform seed germination and establishing a solid foundation for robust crop growth.

Common Scenarios When a Plow is the Preferred Choice

The choice to employ a plow is contingent upon various factors, and there are specific scenarios where its application proves particularly advantageous. In situations where the soil is compacted or has a high clay content, the moldboard plow excels in breaking up these challenging conditions, allowing for better root penetration and nutrient absorption. Large-scale farming operations often benefit from the efficiency of plowing in terms of preparing extensive fields for planting. Additionally, when dealing with the residue management of previous crops, the plow’s ability to bury plant material aids in reducing pest and disease pressure, contributing to overall crop health. Understanding these scenarios allows farmers to strategically deploy the plow, harnessing its capabilities for optimal agricultural outcomes.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using a Plow


  1. Deep Soil Disturbance: Plows are designed for deep soil penetration, effectively breaking up compacted soil layers and facilitating improved root penetration.
  2. Effective Residue Burial: The plowing process buries crop residues, mitigating weed growth, and reducing the risk of diseases associated with surface residue.
  3. Enhanced Aeration: The turning action of a plow enhances soil aeration, promoting better oxygen infiltration and nutrient absorption by plant roots.
  4. Suitable for Large Fields: Plows are well-suited for large-scale farming, providing efficient coverage of extensive areas in a relatively short time.


  1. Potential for Soil Erosion: The creation of furrows during plowing can expose soil to erosion, especially on sloping terrain.
  2. Fuel Consumption: Plowing often requires more significant fuel consumption compared to other cultivation methods, contributing to operational costs.
  3. Time-Consuming: Plowing large areas can be time-consuming, particularly if the soil conditions require multiple passes or adjustments.
  4. Disruption of Soil Structure: The deep disturbance caused by plowing can alter the soil structure, potentially leading to issues such as compaction over time.

Tiller Overview

plow vs tiller

In the intricate tapestry of agricultural machinery, the tiller emerges as a versatile and efficient tool, designed to perform the crucial task of soil cultivation. A tiller, also known as a cultivator or rototiller, is employed to break up and aerate the soil, facilitating seedbed preparation and promoting optimal conditions for plant growth. Its role in agriculture is to provide a fine and loose soil structure, preparing the ground for planting and enhancing the overall health of the cultivated area. This overview explores the diverse aspects of the tiller, shedding light on its definition, purpose, types, advantages, and the specific scenarios where it emerges as the preferred choice.

Types of Tillers

  1. Rear-Tine Tillers:
    • Description: Rear-tine tillers are powerful machines with the tines located behind the wheels. They are self-propelled and offer better traction, making them suitable for larger areas and challenging soil conditions.
    • Use Case: Ideal for breaking new ground and cultivating large gardens. Their adjustable tine width allows for versatility in different soil types.
  2. Front-Tine Tillers:
    • Description: Front-tine tillers have tines located in front of the wheels, making them more maneuverable. They are generally smaller and less powerful than rear-tine tillers.
    • Use Case: Best suited for smaller gardens and areas with less compacted soil. Front-tine tillers are easier to handle in tight spaces.
  3. Vertical-Tine Tillers:
    • Description: Vertical-tine tillers have tines that rotate vertically, similar to blades on a ceiling fan. This design allows for more precise soil cultivation and better control over depth and direction.
    • Use Case: Well-suited for gardeners who need a tiller with precise control, especially in areas with existing plantings. They are efficient for weeding and aerating.
  4. Counter-Rotating Tine Tillers:
    • Description: Counter-rotating tine tillers have tines that move in the opposite direction, reducing the machine’s tendency to pull forward. This design provides better stability and control.
    • Use Case: Effective for breaking up hard and compacted soil. The counter-rotation helps in digging deeper and can be beneficial for challenging soil conditions.
  5. Mid-Tine Tillers:
    • Description: Mid-tine tillers have tines located in the middle of the machine, offering a balance between the power of rear-tine tillers and the maneuverability of front-tine tillers.
    • Use Case: Suitable for medium-sized gardens where a balance of power and maneuverability is needed. They are versatile and can handle various soil types.
  6. Mini or Compact Tillers:
    • Description: Mini or compact tillers are lightweight and designed for small-scale gardening. They are usually operated by hand and are easy to maneuver in tight spaces.
    • Use Case: Perfect for small gardens, flower beds, and raised beds. They are portable and suitable for light soil cultivation and weeding.
  7. Electric Tillers:
    • Description: Electric tillers are powered by electricity, eliminating the need for gas. They are generally smaller and quieter but may have less power compared to gas-powered models.
    • Use Case: Ideal for urban or suburban gardens where noise and emissions are concerns. They are suitable for light to moderate soil cultivation.
  8. Gas-Powered Tillers:
    • Description: Gas-powered tillers are typically more powerful than electric models and offer greater mobility. They are available in various sizes and configurations.
    • Use Case: Suited for larger areas and tougher soil conditions. Gas-powered tillers are commonly used in agriculture and landscaping.

Advantages of Using a Tiller

Employing a tiller in agricultural practices yields a range of advantages that contribute to efficient and successful soil cultivation. One of the primary benefits is the tiller’s ability to break up compacted soil, improving drainage and promoting better root growth. The mixing action of the tiller also facilitates the incorporation of organic matter, enhancing soil fertility. Additionally, tillers excel in weed control by uprooting and burying weeds, reducing competition for nutrients and sunlight. The fine tilth created by a tiller provides an ideal seedbed, fostering uniform germination and ensuring a strong start for crops.

Common Scenarios When a Tiller is the Preferred Choice

The decision to use a tiller is guided by specific scenarios where its unique capabilities are most beneficial. In smaller gardening spaces, where precision and maneuverability are crucial, garden tillers prove particularly effective. The rotary tiller, with its ability to cover larger areas efficiently, becomes indispensable in larger-scale farming operations. When preparing a seedbed or renovating an existing garden, the tiller’s ability to quickly and thoroughly cultivate the soil makes it a preferred choice. Moreover, in situations where the soil is relatively loose, and the goal is to maintain soil structure without the need for extensive soil disruption, a tiller emerges as the go-to tool. Understanding these scenarios empowers farmers and gardeners to make informed choices, harnessing the advantages of a tiller for optimal agricultural outcomes.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using a Tiller


  1. Surface-Level Cultivation: Tillers operate closer to the soil surface, providing a finer tilth without significant disruption to the soil structure.
  2. Maneuverability: Tillers are generally more maneuverable and suitable for smaller plots, making them advantageous in gardens or areas with limited space.
  3. Quicker Seedbed Preparation: Tillers are often faster in preparing seedbeds, making them a practical choice for time-sensitive planting seasons.
  4. Lower Fuel Consumption: Tillers typically have lower fuel consumption compared to plows, contributing to cost savings.


  1. Limited Depth of Soil Disturbance: Tillers may not penetrate as deeply as plows, potentially limiting their effectiveness in breaking up hardpan or compacted soils.
  2. Surface Residue Challenges: Unlike plows, tillers may not bury crop residues as effectively, leading to potential challenges with weed control and disease management.
  3. Smaller Coverage Area: Tillers may be less efficient for large-scale farming operations due to their smaller coverage area and the need for more passes.
  4. May Require More Frequent Maintenance: The moving parts of tillers, especially tines or blades, may require more frequent maintenance compared to the simpler design of plows.

Differences Between Plow and Tiller

Understanding the distinctions between a plow and a tiller is pivotal for making informed decisions in agriculture. These tools, while sharing the common goal of soil cultivation, differ significantly in their mechanisms and the outcomes they produce.

Depth of Soil Disturbance

One of the primary differentiators between a plow and a tiller lies in the depth of soil disturbance they achieve. Plows are designed to penetrate deeper into the soil, often reaching depths that facilitate the inversion of soil layers. This characteristic makes plows particularly effective in breaking up compacted soil and burying crop residues. On the other hand, tillers generally operate at shallower depths, cultivating the top layers of soil. This difference in depth has implications for factors such as nutrient distribution and root development, influencing the choice between plowing and tilling based on specific soil conditions.

Impact on Soil Structure

The impact on soil structure is another crucial aspect where plows and tillers diverge. Plows, with their deeper penetration, tend to create furrows and ridges, altering the overall structure of the soil. While this can be beneficial for certain crops and soil types, it may also pose challenges such as increased susceptibility to erosion. Tillers, operating closer to the surface, cultivate the soil without causing significant structural changes. They create a finer tilth, preserving the existing structure to a greater extent. Farmers must consider the desired soil structure for their crops when choosing between a plow and a tiller.

Suitable Soil Types for Each Equipment

The choice between a plow and a tiller is often influenced by the specific characteristics of the soil being cultivated. Plows, with their ability to penetrate deeper into the soil, are well-suited for compacted or heavy soils. These conditions can be challenging for other cultivation methods, making the plow an ideal choice to break up hardpan and improve soil aeration. Tillers, on the other hand, excel in lighter and looser soils. Their surface-level cultivation is effective in maintaining soil structure while promoting seedbed preparation. Understanding the soil type on a particular plot is crucial for selecting the appropriate equipment for optimal results.

Types of Crops Best Suited for Plowing or Tilling

The selection between a plow and a tiller is also influenced by the types of crops being cultivated. Some crops benefit from the deeper soil disturbance provided by plowing, as it allows for better root penetration and access to nutrients. Crops that require a more refined and shallow seedbed, or those with delicate root systems, may thrive with the gentler cultivation of a tiller. Balancing the needs of specific crops with the capabilities of each tool is essential for maximizing crop yield and health. Farmers must consider the crop rotation plan and overall agronomic goals when deciding whether to plow or till a particular field.

Factors to Consider When Choosing

Selecting between a plow and a tiller is not a one-size-fits-all decision; rather, it requires careful consideration of several key factors to ensure the chosen method aligns with the specific needs of the agricultural endeavor.

Size of the Area to be Worked

The scale of the agricultural operation is a pivotal factor when deciding between a plow and a tiller. For larger expanses of land, where efficiency and speed are paramount, a plow may be the preferred choice. Its ability to cover significant acreage with each pass makes it well-suited for large-scale farming. Conversely, in smaller plots or gardens where precision and maneuverability are crucial, a tiller might prove more practical. Understanding the size of the area to be worked is fundamental to optimizing the use of resources and ensuring that the chosen equipment aligns with the scale of the task at hand.

Soil Conditions

The characteristics of the soil play a crucial role in determining whether a plow or a tiller is the more suitable tool. If the soil is compacted or has a high clay content, a plow’s deeper penetration can effectively break up the hardened layers, enhancing soil aeration and nutrient accessibility. In contrast, in looser or lighter soils, a tiller’s surface-level cultivation may be sufficient without causing excessive disruption to the soil structure. Analyzing the soil conditions on a particular plot is essential for tailoring the cultivation method to the specific needs of the land.

Desired Crop Types

Different crops have varying requirements in terms of soil preparation and structure. When choosing between a plow and a tiller, consideration must be given to the types of crops intended for cultivation. Crops with deep root systems or those that benefit from substantial soil disruption may thrive with plowing. Conversely, crops with shallow root systems or those that prefer a finer seedbed may fare better with the gentler cultivation provided by a tiller. Aligning the choice of equipment with the unique needs of the crops contributes to optimal growth and yield.

Time and Labor Considerations

The available time and labor resources are pragmatic factors that influence the decision-making process. Plowing, with its deeper soil disturbance, may require more time and effort, especially on larger fields. The efficiency of plowing in terms of preparing extensive areas needs to be weighed against the potential time and labor investments. On the other hand, tillers, being more maneuverable and operating at shallower depths, may offer quicker and less labor-intensive solutions, making them suitable for smaller-scale operations or time-sensitive planting seasons. Balancing time and labor considerations is crucial for optimizing productivity and ensuring the practicality of the chosen cultivation method.

In essence, the decision between a plow and a tiller hinges on a comprehensive evaluation of factors, including the size of the area, soil conditions, desired crop types, and time and labor considerations. This holistic approach enables farmers and gardeners to make informed choices that align with the specific requirements of their agricultural practices, fostering efficient and sustainable cultivation.

Maintenance and Cost Comparison

Efficient and cost-effective farming practices extend beyond the initial purchase of equipment. A comprehensive understanding of the maintenance requirements and associated costs for plows and tillers is essential for long-term success in agriculture.

Maintenance Requirements for Plows

Plows, with their robust construction and capability for deep soil disturbance, come with specific maintenance needs. Regular inspection and maintenance of plow components, such as the moldboard or plowshare, are crucial to ensure optimal performance. Checking for wear and tear, addressing any corrosion on metal parts, and lubricating moving components are routine tasks. Additionally, proper storage to prevent rust and deterioration during off-seasons is vital. The complexity of some plow designs, especially those with multiple adjustable parts, may require more meticulous attention. Adequate maintenance not only extends the lifespan of the plow but also ensures consistent and effective soil cultivation.

Maintenance Requirements for Tillers

Tillers, known for their versatility and maneuverability, have maintenance requirements that differ from those of plows. Regular checks on the condition of tines or blades are essential to maintain efficient soil cultivation. Lubrication of moving parts, such as the gearbox or chain drive, is crucial for smooth operation. Additionally, monitoring the engine or motor for signs of wear and addressing any issues promptly is key to preventing breakdowns. Proper cleaning, especially after use in challenging soil conditions, helps prevent soil buildup that could impede functionality. While tillers generally have fewer components than plows, attention to these essential elements ensures reliable performance in the field.

Cost Considerations for Both Equipment

Cost considerations encompass both the initial investment and the ongoing expenses associated with plows and tillers. Plows, with their often larger and more intricate designs, may have a higher upfront cost. However, this initial investment can be justified by the durability and longevity of the equipment if proper maintenance is consistently upheld. On the other hand, tillers, with simpler designs and smaller sizes, may have a more accessible initial cost. However, ongoing maintenance needs and the potential for more frequent replacement may contribute to long-term costs. Farmers and gardeners must weigh these factors against their budget constraints, considering not just the purchase price but the overall cost of ownership throughout the equipment’s lifespan.

In conclusion, maintenance and cost considerations for plows and tillers are integral aspects of the decision-making process in agriculture. Diligent maintenance practices ensure the longevity and efficiency of the equipment, contributing to sustainable farming practices. Meanwhile, evaluating the upfront and ongoing costs provides a comprehensive understanding of the economic implications associated with each choice. This holistic approach enables farmers to make informed decisions that align with their operational needs and financial considerations, fostering a balance between productivity and cost-effectiveness in agricultural endeavors.

Tips for Optimal Use

Efficient and effective use of agricultural equipment is essential for maximizing productivity and achieving optimal results in soil cultivation. Whether employing a plow or a tiller, adhering to best practices ensures that these tools contribute to successful farming endeavors.

Best Practices for Using a Plow

  1. Preparation and Calibration: Before initiating plowing, ensure that the plow is properly calibrated for the specific soil conditions and depth requirements. Adjusting the plow angle and depth according to the soil type contributes to efficient and effective soil disruption.
  2. Timing Matters: The timing of plowing is critical. Performing plowing operations when the soil moisture is at an optimal level facilitates easier soil penetration and minimizes compaction. Avoiding plowing when the soil is excessively wet helps prevent structural damage.
  3. Consistent Depth: Maintaining a consistent plowing depth across the field promotes uniform soil disruption and facilitates even incorporation of organic matter. Variances in depth can lead to uneven seedbeds and affect crop growth.
  4. Overlap Control: Overlapping passes during plowing can result in unnecessary soil disturbance and fuel consumption. Ensuring minimal overlap and maintaining a straight and consistent path contributes to overall efficiency.
  5. Post-Plowing Practices: Following plowing, consider incorporating additional soil amendments or fertilizers to enhance soil fertility. Rolling or packing the soil after plowing helps create a firm seedbed for planting.
  6. Addressing Compacted Areas: Identify and address compacted areas separately. Deep tillage may be necessary in these spots to break up hardened layers and improve overall soil structure.

Best Practices for Using a Tiller

  1. Proper Depth Setting: Adjust the tiller depth based on the desired soil cultivation depth for the specific crop. Shallow cultivation is suitable for finer seedbeds, while deeper cultivation may be necessary for certain root crops.
  2. Preparation and Inspection: Before use, inspect the tiller for any signs of wear or damage. Ensure that tines or blades are sharp and in good condition. Lubricate moving parts as recommended by the manufacturer.
  3. Clearing Debris: Remove any rocks, debris, or large plant material from the area to be tilled. This helps prevent damage to the tiller and ensures a smoother and more consistent operation.
  4. Mindful Maneuvering: Tillers are often more maneuverable than plows, making it essential to be mindful of the path taken. Avoiding abrupt turns or excessive speed helps maintain control and prevents unnecessary stress on the equipment.
  5. Consider Soil Moisture: Tilling works best when the soil has the right moisture content. Tilling excessively wet soil can lead to clumping, while tilling overly dry soil may result in poor incorporation of organic matter.
  6. Frequent Inspection During Operation: Periodically stop and inspect the tiller during operation, especially in challenging soil conditions. Clearing soil buildup around the tines ensures consistent performance and prevents unnecessary strain on the equipment.

Final word

In the perennial debate of plow vs. tiller, the optimal choice hinges on a nuanced understanding of the unique advantages and disadvantages each tool brings to the realm of agriculture. Plows, with their deep soil disturbance and capacity for large-scale operations, prove invaluable for breaking through compacted soils and preparing expansive fields efficiently. On the other hand, tillers, with their surface-level cultivation and maneuverability, cater to the needs of smaller plots and time-sensitive planting seasons.

As we navigate the landscape of soil cultivation, it is essential to recognize that there is no one-size-fits-all solution. The decision between a plow and a tiller is inherently tied to the specific requirements of the land, the scale of operation, and the desired outcomes of the farming endeavor. A judicious consideration of factors such as soil type, crop preferences, and maintenance capabilities guides the choice towards the tool that aligns seamlessly with agricultural goals.

In the quest for sustainable and productive farming practices, the interplay between plows and tillers reveals a dynamic relationship between tradition and innovation. The deep-rooted history of plowing meets the agile adaptability of tillers, offering farmers a spectrum of options to cultivate their lands effectively.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) – Plow vs. Tiller

Q1: What is the primary purpose of a plow and a tiller in agriculture?

A1: A plow is primarily designed for deep soil penetration, breaking up compacted layers, and preparing large fields for planting. In contrast, a tiller operates closer to the surface, providing finer soil tilth and is often used for smaller plots and gardens.

Q2: How do plows and tillers differ in terms of soil disturbance?

A2: Plows achieve deeper soil disturbance, creating furrows and turning over soil layers. Tillers operate at shallower depths, cultivating the top layers without significant soil inversion.

Q3: Which is more suitable for large-scale farming – a plow or a tiller?

A3: Plows are generally more suitable for large-scale farming due to their capacity for extensive coverage and deeper soil disturbance. Tillers are more maneuverable and practical for smaller plots.

Q4: Can a tiller be used for large fields?

A4: While tillers can be used for large fields, they are more efficient for smaller areas. Their smaller coverage area and surface-level cultivation make them ideal for gardens and compact spaces.

Q5: How do plows and tillers impact soil structure?

A5: Plows can alter soil structure by creating furrows and ridges, while tillers maintain a finer tilth, preserving the existing structure with minimal disturbance.

Q6: Are there specific crops that benefit more from plowing or tilling?

A6: Crops with deep root systems or those requiring substantial soil disruption may benefit more from plowing. Crops with shallow roots or delicate seedbed preferences may thrive with tillage.

Q7: What are the key maintenance differences between plows and tillers?

A7: Plows typically require maintenance related to moldboards, corrosion prevention, and multiple adjustable parts. Tillers may need more frequent checks on tines or blades, lubrication, and engine inspections.

Q8: Which tool is more fuel-efficient – a plow or a tiller?

A8: Tillers are generally more fuel-efficient compared to plows. The smaller size and surface-level cultivation contribute to reduced fuel consumption.

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